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Identification of the Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 26 (Isolate KUW2010/02) that Restrict Replication in a Culicoides sonorensis Cell Line (KC Cells)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect most ruminant species and is usually transmitted by adult, vector-competent biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Infection with BTV can cause severe clinical signs and can be fatal, particularly in naïve sheep and some deer species. Although 24 distinct BTV serotypes were recognized for several decades, additional ‘types’ have recently been identified, including BTV-25 (from Switzerland), BTV-26 (from Kuwait) and BTV-27 from France (Corsica).

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid identification of eastern and western strains of bluetongue virus in India

Bluetongue virus (BTV) infects all ruminants, including cattle, goats and camelids, causing bluetongue disease (BT) that is often severe in naïve deer and sheep. Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were developed to detect eastern or western topotype of BTV strains circulating in India. Each assay uses four primers recognizing six distinct sequences of BTV genome-segment 1 (Seg-1).

Inter-laboratory evaluation of the performance parameters of a Lateral Flow Test device for the detection of Bluetongue virus-specific antibodies

Bluetongue (BT) is a viral vector-borne disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. In this study, a commercial rapid immuno-chromatographic method or Lateral Flow Test (LFT) device, for the detection of BT virus-specific antibodies in animal serum, was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test. The evaluation was done with sera samples of variable background (ruminant species, serotype, field samples, experimental infections, vaccinated animals). The diagnostic sensitivity was 100% (95% C.I. [90.5–100]) and the diagnostic specificity was 95.2% (95% C.I.

Using shared needles for subcutaneous inoculation can transmit bluetongue virus mechanically between ruminant hosts

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV infection of ruminants results in a high viraemia, suggesting that repeated sharing of needles between animals could result in its iatrogenic transmission. Studies defining the risk of iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne pathogens by less invasive routes, such as subcutaneous or intradermal inoculations are rare, even though the sharing of needles is common practice for these inoculation routes in the veterinary sector.

Genome sequence of bluetongue virus type 2 from India: evidence for reassortment between outer capsid protein genes

Southern Indian isolate IND1994/01 of bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV-2), from the Orbivirus Reference Collection at the Pirbright Institute (, was sequenced. Its genome segment 6 (Seg-6) [encoding VP5(OCP2)] is identical to that of the Indian BTV-1 isolate (IND2003/05), while Seg-5 and Seg-9 are closely related to isolates from South Africa and the United States, respectively.

Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion

Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment ‘reassortment’ represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe.

Full-Genome Sequencing as a Basis for Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Bluetongue Virus in India

Since 1998 there have been significant changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV). Ten previously exotic BTV serotypes have been detected in Europe, causing severe disease outbreaks in naïve ruminant populations. Previously exotic BTV serotypes were also identified in the USA, Israel, Australia and India. BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and changes in the distribution of vector species, climate change, increased international travel and trade are thought to have contributed to these events.

A quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay to detect genome segment 9 of all 26 bluetongue virus serotypes

Bluetongue (BT) is an arboviral disease, which can often be fatal in naïve sheep and white tailed deer, but is usually less severe, or unapparent in other ruminants. Twenty-six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised so far, two of which (BTV-25 and BTV-26) were recently identified by phylogenetic comparisons of genome-segment/outer-capsid protein VP2 (subsequently confirmed by serological ‘virus-neutralisation’ assays).

A Review of Knowledge Gaps and Tools for Orbivirus Research

Although recognized as causing emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks worldwide since the late 1800s, there has been growing interest in the United States and Europe in recent years in orbiviruses, their insect vectors, and the diseases they cause in domestic livestock and wildlife. This is due, in part, to the emergence of bluetongue (BT) in northern Europe in 2006–2007 resulting in a devastating outbreak, as well as severe BT outbreaks in sheep and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks in deer and cattle in the United States.

Evaluation of adaptive immune responses and heterologous protection induced by inactivated bluetongue virus vaccines

Eradication of bluetongue virus is possible, as has been shown in several European countries. New serotypes have emerged, however, for which there are no specific commercial vaccines. This study addressed whether heterologous vaccines would help protect against 2 serotypes. Thirty-seven sheep were randomly allocated to 7 groups of 5 or 6 animals. Four groups were vaccinated with commercial vaccines against BTV strains 2, 4, and 9. A fifth positive control group was given a vaccine against BTV-8. The other 2 groups were unvaccinated controls.


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